Themenliste 8a: Klassenarbeit Nr. 1 am 23. November 2021

Ihr werdet Wissensfragen erhalten, die auf den Ergebnissen und Leitfragen unserer Stunden basieren.
Außerdem wird es zu ausgewählten Themen eine kurze Textquelle mit Arbeitsaufträgen geben.

Achtung: Die Klassenarbeit wird natürlich komplett in englischer Sprache abgehalten!

Zur Vorbereitung bieten sich die Vokabellisten auf Quizlet zum Lernen an.

https://quizlet.com/434529528/8a-bili-the-american-revolution-flash-cards/

https://quizlet.com/436679773/8a-bili-the-french-revolution-flash-cards/

https://quizlet.com/436688741/8a-bili-reign-of-terror-violence-as-a-means-of-government-flash-cards/

https://quizlet.com/444084304/8a-bili-napoleon-hero-or-tyrant-flash-cards/

https://quizlet.com/542627437/8a-bili-the-industrial-revolution-in-great-britain-flash-cards/

Topic 1: Louis XIV – the Sun King and the Three Estates

September 13th, 2021

Worksheet „Louis XIV – the Sun King“

Worksheet „Absolutism and the Three Estates“

Topic 2: The Age of Enlightenment

September 21st, 2021

Can the enlightenment free people from absolutism?

The theory:

Enlightenment is based on the conviction that people were all born free.

Their idea is that everybody has one principle in common that guides people:

REASON (Vernunft)

Rousseau thought that people could use this to be the origin of all power. This form is called a “republic”. -> DEMOCRACY

The consequences:

Which changes occurred with the enlightenment?

knowledge: more people learned to read and write

books: became more fashionable to own books

sciences: gained more importance

superstition: there was no longer room for it

John Locke: the state is created for the people

Charles de Montesquieu: Separation of Powers

    => three powers: legislative, executive, judicial

Jean-Jacques Rousseau: people have the right to live free

Answer to our leading question:

The enlightenment movement proposed a completely new thinking and a completely new form of state.

In a democracy every human being is seen as equal and has the same rights. This is because everybody is able to use reason as a means to make good decisions.

In a democracy the state protects the rights of the people and people govern themselves. They elect representatives who decide for them. The powers are separated into a legislative, an executive and a judicial power. They control each other, so no one can rule alone and become a dictator.

Topic 3: England – an absolute monarchy as well?

September 20th, 2021

Leading question: Why did England not become an absolute monarchy as well?

Worksheet „England – an absolute monarchy as well?“

Topic 4: American Revolution

September 27th/28th and 4th/5th October, 2021 (five lessons)

Leading question: How did the 13 colonies become the United States of America?

Worksheet „The American Revolution – the road to independence“

Group work: All men are created equal – blacks, natives, and women, too?

Topic 5: The French Revolution

October 11th/12th, 2021

Leading question: Why was Louis XVI executed by the French?

Reasons why Louis XVI was executed in 1793:

– King Louis XVI was against the French Revolution and against the constitution of 1791. => THREAT to the Revolution

– The French people saw him as a traitor after he wanted to flee to Prussia to rally a foreign army against the French Revolution.

– Louis XVI was also unpopular because of his wife Marie Antoinette and he spent a lot of money for wars, the navy and his palace in Versailles.

– In 1789, he wanted to raise the taxes for the Third Estate.

Topic 6: The Reign of Terror – Violence as a means of Government

October 18th, 2021

Why did the French Revolution result in chaos and mass-murder in 1793?

Robespierre’s role in the French Revolution:

Before January 1793After January 1793Result
– Since 1780 he has been a lawyer defending the poor.   – He became the leader of the Jacobins, the radical and poorer revolutionaries. – Robespierre only allowed radical Jacobins into the Legislative Assembly. – He voted for the execution of the king.        – He called all Frenchmen to take up arms against the European monarchies.   – Robespierre wanted to develop the ideas of the revolution further. – He wanted to create a completely new society and culture. – He replaced Christianity with a new cult. – Robespierre tried to introduce his new society by force and terror (mass-murder).– Robespierre became a dictator in France, ruling with terror.   – 16.594 people were executed officially, the inoffical number is more than half a million. – Because people wanted to stop the mass-murder, Robespierre was executed in July 1794. – From 1795 to 1799 a directorium of wealthy citizens took over power in France and ended the chaos. But the hunger problem remained.

Topic 7: Napoleon

October 19th. 2021

Leading question: Was Napoleon a hero or a tyrant?

Hero:

•He ended the French Revolution putting an end to mayhem and bloodshed.

•He won wars for France, gained land and brought plunder/loot.

•He was the first to feed the French population successfully.

•He brought the Catholic church back to France.

•He brought the Code Civil to France, a book of laws that gave all French men civil rights.

Tyrant:

•Napoleon was a chauvinist, he didn’t give only civil rights to women.

•He used violence to gain power.

•He was a military dictator using the army as his power base.

•When he conquered countries, he murdered everyone who rebelled against him.

•He didn’t accept any opposition or criticism.

Napoleon was an ambigious historical person (= he had two opposing sides).

For many French men he became a hero, because he secured some of the rights that were fought for in the French Revolution. For most other people he was rather a tyrant, because he waged many wars, killed many people and didn’t give rights to women.

Another good question:

Why did the French people accept Napoleon as their new monarch?

Napoleon‘s first steps to power until 1799

  • Napoleon went to military school since he had been nine years old.
  • he quickly became a general because of his talent
  • in 1793 Napoleon suppressed a royalist revolt for the convention
  • in 1795 Napoleon put down demonstrations of people for the government
  • in 1797 he commanded the French troops in the war against Austria
  • in 1798 he was on a military campaign in Egypt

Napoleon’s rise to power 1799 – 1804

  • in 1799 he secretly left his soldiers and he made himself First Consul in a coup d’ètat
  • he became military dictator, so he ruled with the help of the army
  • he declared the revolution to be officially over
  • he brought the Catholic Church back to France and made a deal with the pope (concordat)
  • in 1803 he became the undisputed leader of France and Consul for lifetime

Napoleon’s reign 1804 – 1806

  • in 1804 a referendum made him Emperor of France
  • his fleet lost at Trafalgar
  • France was a monarchy again
  • in 1804 he introduced the Code Civil, a legal system that gave civil rights to all men -> also introduced in German states
  • He abolished the Holy Roman Empire and reorganized its territory (mediation / secularization), Württemberg, Baden and Bavaria profited from that a lot

Napoleon’s demise 1806 – 1811

  • He lost sea battles against Britain, so he closed the boarders
  • He tried to block trade with Great Britain (continental blockade), but the trade was now persued over Russia
  • He tried to make his brother king of Spain, people resisted that and fought against the French -> his reaction was violent, many Spanish civilians were killed brutally

Napoleon’s defeat 1812 – 1815

  • Napoleon attacked Russia with 600.000 soldiers, but was defeated
  • Austria and Prussia started the Wars of Liberation, they defeated him at the Battle of Leipzig in 1813 -> first moment that Germans felt like they belonged to each other (German nationalism)
  • Napoleon was exiled on Elba, but was accepted back 100 days later
  • After losing the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, he was finally exiled on St. Helena, where he died in 1821.

Topic 8: The Age of Industrialization

October 25th/26th; November 8th/9th 2021

What was the Industrial Revolution?

– Machines were invented to help people produce products.

– People didn’t work by hand anymore, but they worked in factories.

– The energy for machines was taken from coal that was burned and transformed into steam.

How did the Industrial Revolution change production in England until 1830?

– from manual labour and draft-animal power production changed to machine-based manufacturing

– more industry because metal machines were developed

– more and more patents were taking out (e.g.: for the „Spinning Jenny“ or the steam engine)

– more and more parts were industrialized

– production capacity increased dramatically

– machines used steam energy as an energy source

– coal became the primary energy source

– trade expansion because of the introduction of canals and the improvement of streets and railways

– life expectancy rose and society changed dramatically => urbanization!

Why was Britain the first country to have an Industrial Revolution?

•improvements in medical treatment and vaccinations meant that the population grew, which moved to the urban cities to work there => more workers • farmers used four-year-rotation, better machines and chemical fertilizers to grow more food => less famine, more population •invention of the seed drill and animal breeding improved agriculture caused the “agricultural revolution” => even more food meant more population = more workers •in the cotton industry the spinning wheel was replaced the spinning jenny that was able to spin a lot more yarn at the same time than a single woman was able to spin -> use of steam power!

=> The British textile industry became the driving force of British industrialization!

Is industrialization a positive process?

Positive factors of industrialization

•more jobs for people were created •better life expectancy •improved medicine to fight diseases •faster transportation (trains, steamboat) •stronger materials like steel •more trade around the globe made more goods available => globalization •advances in science •technical inventions like the steam engine or the railway •huge changes in society •products had a better quality •people live in towns so there are hospitals, theatres and museums, etc.

=> progress for some people

Negative factors of industrialization

•much more crime •pollution and environmental problems •alcoholism •child labor => children had to work in mines or factories for many hours a day •health problems => new diseases •rising poverty => social question •destruction of nature •high suicide rates •exploitation of colonies outside of Europe •family life was destroyed •very long working hours •lots of traffic •improved weapons lead to deadly wars

      => the majority of people had to suffer!

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