Ihr werdet Wissensfragen erhalten, die auf den Ergebnissen und Leitfragen unserer Stunden basieren.
Außerdem wird es zu ausgewählten Themen eine kurze Textquelle und einen kurzen Verfassertext mit Arbeitsaufträgen geben. Möglicherweise werde ich auch eines der im Unterricht behandelten Gemälde in einer Frage einbringen.
Achtung: Die Klassenarbeit wird natürlich komplett in englischer Sprache abgehalten!
Zur Vorbereitung bieten sich die Vokabellisten auf Quizlet zum Lernen an.
Topic 1: Louis XIV – the Sun King
September 11th, 2019
Worksheet „Louis XIV – the Sun King“
Topic 2: The Three Estates
September 17th, 2019
Worksheet „Absolutism and the Three Estates“
Topic 3: England – an absolute monarchy as well?
September 18th, 2019
Leading question: Why did England not become an absolute monarchy as well?
Worksheet „England – an absolute monarchy as well?“
Topic 4: American Revolution
October 2nd, 2019 (three lessons)
Leading question: How did the 13 colonies become the United States of America?
Worksheet „The American Revolution – the road to independence“
Topic 5: The French Revolution
October 8th, 9th and 16th
Leading question: Why was Louis XVI executed by the French?
Reasons why Louis XVI was executed in 1793:
– King Louis XVI was against the French Revolution and against the constitution of 1791. => THREAT to the Revolution
– The French people saw him as a traitor after he wanted to flee to Prussia to rally a foreign army against the French Revolution.
– Louis XVI was also unpopular because of his wife Marie Antoinette and he spent a lot of money for wars, the navy and his palace in Versailles.
– In 1789, he wanted to raise the taxes for the Third Estate.
Topic 6: The Reign of Terror – Violence as a means of Government
October 22nd and 23rd
Why did the French Revolution result in chaos and mass-murder in 1793?
Robespierre’s role in the French Revolution:
|Before January 1793||After January 1793||Result|
|– Since 1780 he has been a lawyer defending the poor.
– He became the leader of the Jacobins, the radical and poorer revolutionaries.
– Robespierre only allowed radical Jacobins into the Legislative Assembly.
– He voted for the execution of the king.
|– He called all Frenchmen to take up arms against the European monarchies.
– Robespierre wanted to develop the ideas of the revolution further.
– He wanted to create a completely new society and culture.
– He replaced Christianity with a new cult.
– Robespierre tried to introduce his new society by force and terror (mass-murder).
|– Robespierre became a dictator in France, ruling with terror.
– 16.594 people were executed officially, the inoffical number is more than half a million.
– Because people wanted to stop the mass-murder, Robespierre was executed in July 1794.
– From 1795 to 1799 a directorium of wealthy citizens took over power in France and ended the chaos. But the hunger problem remained.
Topic 7: Napoleon
Leading question: Was Napoleon a hero or a tyrant?
Another good question:
Why did the French people accept Napoleon as their new monarch?
Napoleon‘s first steps to power until 1799
– went to military school since he has been nine years old
– he quickly became a general because of his talent
– in 1793 Napoleon suppressed a royalist revolt for the convention
– in 1795 Napoleon put down demonstrations of people for the government
– in 1797 he commanded the French troops in the war against Austria
– in 1798 he was on a military campaign in Egypt
Napoleon’s rise to power 1799 – 1804
– in 1799 he secretly left his soldiers and he made himself First Consul in a coup d’ètat
– he became military dictator, so he ruled with the help of the army
– he declared the revolution to be officially over
– he brought the Catholic Church back to France and made a deal with the pope (concordat)
– in 1803 he became the undisputed leader of France and Consul for lifetime
Napoleon’s reign 1804 – 1806
– in 1804 a referendum made him Emperor of France
– his fleet lost at Trafalgar
– France was a monarchy again
– in 1804 he introduced the Code Civil
Napoleon’s demise 1806 – 1811
– to be continued
Napoleon’s defeat 1812 – 1815
– to be continued
Topic 8: The Age of Industrialization
November 5th, 6th and 12th
What was the Industrial Revolution?
– Machines were invented to help people produce products.
– People didn’t work by hand anymore, but they worked in factories.
– The energy for machines was taken from coal that was burned and transformed into steam.
How did the Industrial Revolution change production in England until 1830?
– from manual labour and draft-animal power production changed to machine-based manufacturing
– more industry because metal machines were developed
– more and more patents were taking out (e.g.: for the „Spinning Jenny“ or the steam engine)
– more and more parts were industrialized
– production capacity increased dramatically
– machines used steam energy as an energy source
– coal became the primary energy source
– trade expansion because of the introduction of canals and the improvement of streets and railways
– life expectancy rose and society changed dramatically => urbanization!
Why was Britain the first country to have an Industrial Revolution?
Five factors why Britain industrialized first:
- geographical factor: Britain has many canals and natural resources
- political factor: the Glorious Revolution (1688) made sure that people could choose their workplace freely: Britain had lots of workers
- economical factor: they had a profitable trade because they could gather resources from their colonies cheaply
- scientific factor: because they had the best universities Britain had many inventors and used high-tech inventions to boost the economy
- liberal factor: people in Britain were allowed to engage in trading since 1688 and were ready to build many factories and railways
Positive and negative effects of industrialization:
– more jobs for people
– better life expectancy
– better medicine to fight diseases
– faster transportation (trains)
– stronger materials like steel
– more trade around the world => globalization
– advances in science
– technical inventions like the steam engine or the railway
– huge changes in society
– products had a better quality
– people lived in towns so there were hospitals, theaters, museums etc.
– much more crime
– pollution and environmental problems
– children hard to work hard => child labor
– rising poverty among the working classes
– destruction of nature (forests, rivers etc.)
– high suicide rates
– exploitation of the colonies outside of Europe
– family life was destroyed
– very long working hours
– lots of traffic (pollution, accidents)
– improved weapons lead to deadly wars
Was the industrialization rather a positive or a negative process for Europe?
=> Industrialization in the 19th century meant a huge progress for production and for the opportunities of rich people. The majority remained poor and had to suffer. There were several positive developments, but they did not outweigh the problems that workers had to endure.
Topic 9: The Social Question
November 19th and 20th
Definition: The process of people flocking to the cities to live and work is called urbanization.
- Describe the changes that occurred over time.
– More people came to the city, it became crowded.
– The town became dirty, especially the river was filled with garbage and the air became polluted.
– There is much more crime (burglaries, murder, etc.).
– People commit suicide much more often.
– Men spent a lot of time in pubs and drank too much alcohol. => alcoholism
– Nature (especially trees/woods) were destroyed.
– Lots of traffic.
– Children have to work in the factories and the mines.
– Health problems in general
– More people are really poor, there are just some rich capitalists with nice houses.
Best of luck to all of you!